1. Noncitizen: A person without US citizenship or nationality. Noncitizens include undocumented community members, those who have temporary protected status (TPS) or any visa status, and legal permanent residents (i.e. green card holders).
2. Arraignment: The arraignment is the first time a defendant appears in court after being arrested. At the arraignment, the judge tells the defendant: 1) What the charges are, 2) What his or her constitutional rights are, and 3) That if he or she does not have enough money to hire a lawyer, the court will appoint a lawyer free of charge.
3. Bail Hearing: At the bail hearing, which takes place shortly after the arraignment, the court can leave the bail amount as is, increase it, decrease it or release the individual to their family on the promise that they will appear for future court dates.
4. Plea agreement: A plea bargain is an agreement between a defendant and a prosecutor, in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty or “no contest” in exchange for an agreement by the prosecutor to drop one or more charges, reduce a charge to a less serious offense, or recommend to the judge a specific sentence acceptable to the defense.
5. State Probation: In California, the Probation Department, like the sheriff’s department, district attorney’s office, public defender’s office, and courts is a key component of a county’s criminal-legal system. If an individual is convicted of a state crime and is sentenced to state probation, they are required to comply with certain court-ordered rules and conditions under the supervision of a county probation officer.
6. Federal Probation: Federal probation is administered through United States Probation and Pretrial Services System. If an individual is convicted of a federal crime, individuals are required to comply with certain court-ordered rules and conditions under the supervision of a federal probation officer.